February 2013

Introduction

Neonatal Neuroimaging is at the Forefront of Neonatal Clinical Care and Research

Ashok Panigrahy

Ashok Panigrahy

Over the last two decades there has been dramatic improvement in neonatal care, and now it is commonplace for high-risk neonates to survive well into adulthood. ¬†However, this dramatic impact on mortality is hampered by the fact that a substantial portion of survivors go on to develop neurosensory, neurocognitive, and neuropsychiatric disabilities, impacting their quality … more »

Pediatrics

Deep Medullary Vein Involvement in Neonates with Brain Damage: An MR Imaging Study

In this study we describe a new pattern of cerebral damage that may affect both preterm and at-term neonates with a history of neonatal distress or seizures in the first week of life. The main feature of this pattern is the involvement of deep medullary veins (DMV), small vessels that drain deep white matter.

In our patients, congested and thrombotic DMV appear on T1-, T2-, and¬†susceptibility-weighted … more »

Pediatrics

Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy Results in Improved Microstructure and Metabolism in the Deep Gray Nuclei

Sonia Lomeli Bonifacio

Sonia Lomeli Bonifacio

Advanced MRI techniques provide a window into the neonatal brain. They allow us to study the impact of a perinatal insult on brain microstructure and metabolism as well as the potential impact of neuroprotective strategies, such as hypothermia, for neonatal encephalopathy. Our findings suggest that neonates with encephalopathy who are treated with hypothermia … more »

Pediatrics

Brain Perfusion in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia

Pia Wintermark

Pia Wintermark

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious brain injury due to birth asphyxia that causes significant mortality and long-term morbidity, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, learning difficulties, and blindness. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the only available treatment that may prevent brain injury, but a significant proportion of treated newborns still develop neurological sequelae.

Our data in this … more »

Pediatrics

Abnormal Interhemispheric Connectivity in Neonates with D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery

Malek Makki

Malek Makki

After birth, neonates with dextrotransposition of the great artery (d-TGA) require cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery within the first week of life. Despite improving perioperative intensive care management with lowering overall mortality rate, morbidity remains high, especially regarding the neurodevelopmental outcome in psychomotor and cognitive abilities during long-term follow-up. Impairment of the central nervous system has … more »

Pediatrics

Abnormal Cerebral Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

Lisa Paquette

Lisa Paquette

Jessica Wisnowski

Jessica Wisnowski

Multiple prior studies of term neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) have documented delayed brain maturation (both in utero and in the preoperative postnatal period), particularly in term infants with single ventricle physiology, further increasing their risk for injury or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. In contrast, … more »

Pediatrics

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Abnormalities in the Corticospinal Tracts of Neonates with Infantile Krabbe Disease

Maria Escolar

Maria Escolar

Krabbe disease, also known as globoid-cell leukodystrophy, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC), which is essential for normal catabolism of the principal lipid component of myelin. This is a very rare disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 100,000 live births. Most patients with Krabbe disease … more »