July 2013

Introduction

Deep Brain Stimulation and Neuroradiology

Falgun Chokshi

Falgun Chokshi

The idea of using long, sharp metallic instruments to enter the anterior cranium and frontal lobes to “treat” certain disorders conjures up images of the infamous frontal lobotomies performed in Europe and the United States from the 1930s to 1950s. Over the last decade, however, metallic leads that traverse the frontal lobes have taken on … more »

Brain

Neuroimaging and Deep Brain Stimulation

Didier Dormont

Didier Dormont

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was initially employed to cure intractable tremor in the early 1990s1 by A. Benabid, a French mathematician and stereotactic neurosurgeon who, at that time, described  bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS for advanced Parkinson disease (PD).2 Coubes in Montpellier3 utilized chronic bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus to cure generalized dystonia. In … more »

Brain

Automated Optimization of Subcortical Cerebral MR Imaging−Atlas Coregistration for Improved Postoperative Electrode Localization in Deep Brain Stimulation

Thomas Schönecker

Thomas Schönecker

This article features a specific method that points to the important question of increasing the anatomic accuracy in localizing electrode contacts in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia. Representing my primary research interest, electrode localization appears to play a significant role, first in quantitative comparison across patients in group analysis, and second, in … more »

Brain

Direct Visualization of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus with 3T MR Imaging

Konstantin Slavin

Konstantin Slavin

The idea of direct visualization of the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) is not new. Due to the high variability of its location in the depth of brain tissue, clinicians discovered early on that our standard atlas-based approach to targeting of thalamic and pallidal structures is not sufficient to reliably target the STN during functional stereotactic … more »

Brain

Explaining Clinical Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation through Simplified Target-Specific Modeling of the Volume of Activated Tissue

Volker A. Coenen

Volker A. Coenen

Burkhard Mädler

Burkhard Mädler

The concept of high-frequency electric stimulation in the brain (deep brain stimulation [DBS]) to alleviate a variety of neurologic and psychiatric, otherwise therapy-refractory disorders has gained wide acceptance. DBS continuously delivers electrical pulses, variable in amplitude, pulse width, and frequency, through permanently implanted … more »

Functional

Functional Connectivity Targeting for Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor

Jeffrey Anderson

Jeffrey Anderson

Functional neurosurgery is a rapidly emerging tool to treat dozens of neuropsychiatric and neurologic conditions. Yet, one of the biggest limitations of deep brain stimulator placement, high-frequency ultrasound ablations, and cortical stimulator treatments is identifying the correct target for therapy. I see image guidance for such therapies as a critical venue for functional neuroradiology. As … more »

Brain

MR Imaging-Related Heating of Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes: In Vitro Study

Daniel Finelli

Daniel Finelli

The most interesting thing I remember about this work was the fun we had in our pretty extraordinary multidisciplinary team. This was in the early days of clinical investigation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for various disorders, and we had the critical task to determine the MR safety conditions for the devices, information for the benefit of the DBS … more »