May 2014

Introduction

Advanced Diffusion Imaging

Jason Allen

Jason Allen

It has been apparent since the time of the early neuroanatomists that the white matter of the CNS was organized in predictable bundles. With the advent of neuroimaging, in particular, MRI, a number of these white matter tracts could be identified. However, the complexity of several of these tracts, particularly their branching and intersecting patterns, limits the utility of conventional MRI techniques. … more »

Commentary

New Directions in Diffusion MRI: Non-Gaussianity, Multiple Pulses, and Oscillating Gradients

Joseph Helpern

Joseph Helpern

Water molecules diffusing in the brain can be used to probe tissue microstructure noninvasively with diffusion MRI (dMRI). The microstructural distances to which dMRI is most sensitive are set by the typical distance a water molecule diffuses during the approximately 100 ms needed to acquire an individual dMRI signal. This distance of about 10 μm makes dMRI ideal for investigating cell-sized … more »

Brain

Novel White Matter Tract Integrity Metrics Sensitive to Alzheimer Disease Progression

Els Fieremans

Els Fieremans

Andreana Benitez

Andreana Benitez

Our research focuses on the study of degeneration in brain white matter, which consists primarily of myelinated axons that connect gray matter regions, using MRI. Although Alzheimer disease (AD) is typically considered a gray matter disease, postmortem studies have provided evidence of pathological changes in white matter occurring early in the … more »

Head & Neck

Non-Gaussian Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Feasibility Study

Jacobus F. A. Jansen

Jacobus F.A. Jansen

Notwithstanding recent advances in surgical and oncologic treatments, the overall survival rate of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has unfortunately not improved considerably over recent years. A priori predictors of outcome are desperately needed to advance patient care; for example non-invasive imaging markers might have a role in clinical decision-making, allowing oncologists to intervene … more »

Pediatrics

Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging of the Developing Brain

Amir Paydar

Amir Paydar

Human embryology and development is indeed one of the most (if not the most) fascinating subjects in the field of biological sciences. Nevertheless, our scientific community still faces challenges in trying to understand the concepts that define the underlying mechanisms of embryology and tissue development. After all, it is a very complex subject to grasp and many of the processes that … more »

Spine

A Better Characterization of Spinal Cord Damage in Multiple Sclerosis: A Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging Study

Eytan Raz

Eytan Raz

Maxim Bester

Maxim Bester

Histopathological studies have shown that spinal cord WM and GM are affected by demyelination and neuronal loss in patients with MS. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DWI and DTI) allow the detection and quantification of lesional and diffuse tissue injury. Although spinal cord DWI/DTI is technically challenging, … more »

Brain

High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging Probabilistic Tractography of the Auditory Radiation

Jeffrey Berman

Jeffrey Berman

The auditory radiation is the gateway to the brain for sound sensation. However this functionally important tract is not easily delineated with traditional DTI tractography. Other sensory input pathways such as the somatosensory and optic radiations have been extensively studied with traditional DTI because they comprise relatively simple single-fiber architectures. The auditory radiation is relatively small and crosses other white matter … more »