January-February 2017

Introduction

Resting-State fMRI in Evaluation of Epilepsy

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Daniel Chow

Approximately 4.3 million (1.8%) adults and 750,000 (1.0%) children in the United States have been diagnosed with epilepsy or other seizure disorders; approximately one-third have seizures refractory to medical therapies.1,2 MRI is essential for the assessment of these patients with medically refractory epilepsy, as it allows identification of structural abnormalities which, when resected, may lead to seizure freedom. Task-based functional … more »

Functional

Functional Connectivity MR Imaging of the Language Network in Patients with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

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Massimo Caulo

We have been involved in presurgical brain mapping with task-evoked functional MRI (fMRI) since 2000, and we have observed that brain function reorganizes in different ways in the presence of a tumor or a vascular malformation placed in proximity to eloquent cortex or within a functional network. We were aware that our findings were strongly influenced by mass or other … more »

Functional

Seizure Frequency Can Alter Brain Connectivity: Evidence from Resting-State fMRI

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Rose Dawn Bharath

A majority of the resting-state functional MRI literature on epilepsy describes connectivity differences in patients with epilepsy compared with healthy controls. Some studies reported diffuse decreased connectivity, while others found regions with increased connectivity, and still others found both. The diversity of these results is beautifully brought out in the commentary “Functional Connectivity in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A … more »

Functional

Influence of Resting-State Network on Lateralization of Functional Connectivity in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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Dewen Hu

Numerous studies indicate that neuropsychiatric disorders including epilepsy are associated with brain dysfunction at a large-scale network level. However, most of the previous mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) studies have focused on the epileptogenic zone, and those analyses paying attention to regions outside the hippocampus mainly focused on structural brain imaging. So far, whole-brain functional connectivity of right mTLE (R-mTLE) … more »

Pediatrics

Abnormal Functional Network Connectivity Among Spatially Independent Resting-State Networks in Children with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

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Elysa Widjaja

Epilepsy is considered a disorder of large neural networks. There is considerable interest in examining the neural networks in patients with epilepsy. Functional connectivity and structural connectivity can be assessed using fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Resting-state networks refer to spatially segregated brain regions that exhibit spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations and may represent intrinsic brain functional connectivity in discrete neuroanatomic … more »